Archive for mai 11th, 2018

less mothers work. The underlying notion is that women really want to work, but they can only do so when the social policy barriers are removed. This paper will question such logic. Does the variety in welfare states’ design really cause an European patchwork of gendered work-and care patterns. The main claim of this paper is that welfare states do matter but it is important not to look at welfare states primarily as structures of financial (dis) incentives, as it is often done, but at welfare states as ‘moral agents’ (Wolfe 1989). When it concerns women’s employment and care, people do not behave exclusively as homo economicus: culturally shaped moral ideals of care matter most. Such an approach takes the best of cultural approaches (Pfau- Effinger 1998, Hakim 2000) and social policy analysis. The empirical information from Belgium, the Netherlands, the UK and Denmark will help me to show this thesis. These countries are chosen to increase European generalisation as they are representatives of the welfare regime models of both Esping-Andersen and Lewis. Changes and differences in welfare states and women’s work The first problem is that diversity in welfare states cannot sufficiently explain changes and diversity in women’s work. This can be shown by confronting changes in mothers’employment patterns and welfare states design. Table 1 Employment rate (%) for women with a child under age 3, 1992-2003, four countries 1992 2000 2003 BE 61 68 63 DK 70* 71* 72 NL 42 63 70 UK 40 53 52 Source: Moss (2004) on the basis of the European Labour Force Survey. Eurostat (2005) * Since Denmark was not included The OECD Labour Force Survey (2002a) is used for 2000. The first country in which women moved en masse to the labour market is Denmark. Already in the 1960s, due to labour market shortages and an active women’s movement, the ideal of mothers was to remain part of the labour market. In the 1970s employment participation increased as many women could find a job in the newly established service state. Today, Danish mothers employment rates are among the highest in Europe and far the majority of mothers works full-time (Table 1 & 2). Historically Belgian employment rates of mothers are higher than one expects of a conservative- corporatist country. Already after the second world war employment rates were relatively high. This is generally explained by the necessaity of women to work to raise the family income. More recently mothers increasingly move to part-time employment. Until the 1990s, the Netherlands was a laggard in Europe. Together with Ireland and Spain it had the lowest employment rates of mothers in Europe. But after a sprint from the mid 1990s onwards, it has passed many other welfare states, including

  Prin retragerea din acordul 5 + 1, Statele Unite, din nou, își pierd cuvântul și destabilizează – a doua oară în mai puțin de o lună – un echilibru regional deja precar. Această decizie este periculoasă și dăunătoare pentru pace în lume și pentru interesele Franței: eu condamn cu fermitate din trei motive: În primul […]


Romania tuturor romanilor sub Guvernul PSD are o viziune democratica cea mai slaba din Uniunea Europeana, astfel incat se impune nevoiea dea avea un nou guvern dupa ce toate partidele politice si parlamentare se manifesta impotriva guvernarii si combaterii saraciei si coruptiei publice din afacerile coruptie de contractele publice cu Statul Roman.

Dan Nicusor, Klaus Iohannis, Monica Macovei, Laura Codruta Kovesi, Catalin PREDOIU , CTP, Ion Cristoiu, Cristian PREDA,Dan Nicuosr, Marine LE PEN , Ambasada Farantei.Ambasada Orientului Mijlociu, Ambasada USA si Statele Unite ale Uniunii Europene. CEDO-privind Drepturile Omului. Ambasada Canadei, Ambasada Teheran , Ambasada Chinei, Ambasada Piata Rosiei din Moscova. Institutul pentru Drepturile Omului din Lume. Liga Drepturilor Omului din Franta. Consiliul de Pace de la Conventia Europei din 1918. Consiliul de Coroana din Regatul Marii Unite. Si, Consiliul de Coroana de la Palatul Cotroceni, privind Statul Roman, a patra putere in STATUL de drept la ora actuala. Raluca Turcan , Bogdan Scurtu, Ludovic Orban, Dan Mihalache, vasile Blaga, Elena Udrea, DAN Tapalaga, Augustin Lazar,oana bizgan , cosette-paula chichirău, alina gorghiu. este de utilitate publica, pentru libertatea presei din Romania !